【 Introduction 】
Mongolia, located between the People's Republic of China and Russia, is a landlocked country surrounded by the two countries. Although Mongolia does not border with Kazakhstan, its west point is only 38 kilometers to the eastern end of Kazakhstan. Ulaanbaatar is the capital and the largest city in the country, accounting for 45% of the total population. In Mongolian history, it was ruled by Huns, Xianbei, Rouran, Turks, Khitan and other nationalities. Genghis Khan established Great Mongolia in 1206. In 1271, his grandson Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty in 1368, the Mongolians returned to the Mongolian grasslands, but often clashed with the Ming Dynasty at the border. From the 16th to 17th centuries, Mongolia began to be influenced by Tibetan Buddhism. At the end of the 17th century, the whole territory of Mongolia was included in the rule of the Qing Dynasty. After the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared its independence, but it did not receive international recognition. Until 1921, Mongolia declared its independence under the control of Russia. In 1961, Mongolia joined the United Nations and began to gain international recognition. The People's Republic of Mongolia, founded in 1924, was under the influence of the Soviet Union. In 1946, the Republic of China recognized its independent status. Following the drastic changes in Eastern Europe, Mongolia broke out a democratic revolution, and in 1992 promulgated a new constitution with a multi-party system, changed the title of the country and began the transition to a market economy. Mongolia, with an area of 1.565 million square kilometers, is the 19th largest country in the world and the second largest landlocked country after Kazakhstan. With a population of about 3 million, it is the least densely populated country in the world. Mongolia has less arable land and most of its territory is covered by grasslands. There are many mountains in the north and west, and Gobi desert in the south. About 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic. The main religion is Tibetan Buddhism, the main ethnic group is Mongolian, Kazakh, Tuva and other ethnic minorities are distributed in the west. GDP was $11.149 billion (2017). China joined the World Trade Organization in 1997.
【 Resources 】
Mongolia has found and identified more than 80 minerals, more than 800 mining areas and more than 8000 mining sites, mainly containing iron, copper, molybdenum, coal, zinc, gold, lead, tungsten, oil, oil shale and other resources. Among them, copper reserves are more than 2 billion tons, gold reserves are 3400 tons, coal reserves are 300 billion tons, oil reserves are 8 billion barrels, iron ore reserves are 2 billion tons, fluorite deposits are 28 million tons, phosphorite reserves are 200 million tons, molybdenum reserves are 240,000 tons, zinc reserves are 60,000 tons, silver reserves are 70,000 tons, etc.
Mongolian vegetation is composed of Siberian coniferous forests in the north and grasslands and deserts in central Asia in the south. There are 103 families, 596 genera, 2251 species of higher seed plants, 40families, 119 genera, 293 species of bryophytes, 570 species of lichens, 34 genera and 218 species of mushrooms, 154 genera and 574 species of medicinal plants. Among them, the main plants are Mongolian grass, Kolkinski grass, Gorganov spiral flower, Glubov coniferous Oxytropis, Populus euphratica, Shanchuan willow, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Acorus calamus, Acorus splendens, Mainiang and so on.
There are about 60 kinds of mammals, 50 kinds of fish and 90 kinds of birds in Mongolian wildlife. There are mainly marmots, wild donkeys, wild horses, antlers, Gobi bears, wild camels, antelopes, wild goats, ewes, black-tailed yellow sheep, musk deer, leopards, beavers, otters, minks, mice, vultures, hung, quails, snow chickens, pheasants, soap sculptures, owls, owls, otters, woodpeckers.
【 Economics 】
Mongolia's economy is dominated by animal husbandry and mining industry, which has long been a planned economy. After the 1990s, Mongolia carried out the privatization reform and joined the World Trade Organization in January 1997.
Animal husbandry is Mongolia's traditional industry, the foundation of the national economy, and the main source of raw materials for Mongolia's processing industry and daily necessities. Mongolia is sparsely populated and has a long winter. Animal husbandry production is still dominated by natural grazing. At this stage, it is still difficult to achieve large-scale and modern production, which is greatly affected by natural climate and livestock. From 2015 to 2017, there were no snowstorm disasters or large-scale epidemics in Mongolia. The animal husbandry ushered in a bumper harvest and the stock of livestock reached a record high.
Agriculture (mainly refers to planting) is not the pillar industry of Mongolian national economy, but it is closely related to the national economy and people's livelihood, and has always been attached great importance by the government. More than 60,000 people are employed in agriculture, and the output value accounts for about a quarter of the total output value of agriculture and animal husbandry. Mongolia's main crops are wheat, barley, potatoes, cabbage, radish, onions, garlic, rape and so on. In 2017, the total output of cereals planted in Mongolia dropped by 50.7% compared with the previous year, 128,000 tons of potatoes by 26.3%, 82,100,000 tons of vegetables by 13.1% compared with the previous year, and 1,081,000 tons of feed crops by 21% compared with the previous year.
Industry and mining industry
In 2017, the total output value of industry and mining industry was 1293.26 billion, an increase of 30.3% over the previous year. Among them, the total output value of mining industry was 9386 billion, an increase of 32.8%, and that of manufacturing industry was 2625.8 billion, an increase of 31.4%. Mongolia is rich in mineral resources, and some of its large mineral reserves are in the leading position in the world. At present, Mongolia has been mining and export products of large and medium-sized mines are mainly: Oyu Tolgoi Copper and Gold Mine (OT mine), Tawen Tolgoi Coal Mine (TT mine), Erdent Copper and Molybdenum Mine, Nalin Suhaite Coal Mine, Baganor Coal Mine, Tumulting Obao Zinc Mine, Tamchag Oilfield and so on.
In 2017, the total output value of Mongolian construction industry was 3130.6 billion, an increase of 1.5% over the previous year. Among them, the output value of residential buildings increased by 13.4%, the output value of non-residential buildings (industry, trade, hospitals, schools, etc.) decreased by 12.0%, the output value of general buildings (roads, bridges, public facilities, etc.) increased by 21%, and the output value of building maintenance increased by 80.6%.
GDP: $11.149 billion (2017)
Per capita GDP: $3686 (2016)
Gross domestic product growth rate: 5.1% (2017)
Currency Name: TUGRUG
Exchange rate: $1 = 1978 Tuglick (January 2019)
Inflation rate: 14.6% (June 2014)
Registered unemployment: 33900 (June 2014)
Finance and Finance
Mongolia's domestic financial market is small. Over the whole year of 2017, Mongolia's total budget revenue (including foreign aid) amounted to 720 billion Tu (about 2.951 billion US dollars), an increase of 24.1% over the previous year; its total fiscal expenditure (including the amount of debt service) amounted to 89 trillion Tu (about 3.648 billion US dollars), a decrease of 5.4%, and its fiscal deficit of 17 trillion Tu (about 697 million US dollars), a decrease of 52.4%.
Bank of Mongolia
Founded in 1924, President Zhuo Le Galegler.
Exports are mainly mineral products, textiles and livestock products; imports are mainly mineral products, machinery and equipment, food and so on. The main trading partners are China, Russia, the European Union, Canada, the United States, Japan, South Korea and so on.
Mongolia pursues an open economic policy. In recent years, we have actively developed economic and trade cooperation with western developed countries and Asian countries. In 2017, Mongolia's trade with other countries and regions in the world totaled 10.5 billion US dollars, an increase of 27.3%. Among them, exports amounted to $6.2 billion, up 26.1%, imports amounted to $4.3 billion, up 29.1%.
From 1990 to 2011, more than 70 enterprises from China, Russia, Japan, the United States and South Korea made direct investment in Mongolia, with a total investment of about 9.83 billion US dollars. The main investment departments are mines, light industry, animal products processing, commerce, construction and so on.
The main donors and international organizations are Japan, the United States, Germany, Russia, China and the Asian Bank, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.